Convert Byte To Char C

1, the preferred way to do this is via the String constructors that take a Charset, charset name, or that use the platform's default charset. Convert double to string: 9. Data conversion instructions in assembly language programming. It's recommended to only use char for storing characters. Use this page to learn how to convert between gigabytes and bytes. byte[] val = new byte[str. My understanding is that you have a byte array whose values are between 0 and 9 and that you want to convert each byte value to a "0" to "9" character (to get a string) and then again from a "0" to "9" character back to a 0 to 9 byte ???. The btowc() function converts the single byte value c to the wide-character representation of c. In contrast to CHAR, VARCHAR values are stored as a 1-byte or 2-byte length prefix plus data. Program 1: Convert a String into byte[] and write in a file. How to convert character to ASCII in Java. We use %02X to print two places (02) of Hexadecimal (X) value and store it in the string st. Internally, it’s represented as an array of characters. The string class provides a constructor which can accept a c-string (a null-terminated character sequence). This post explains how to convert an unsigned long int into a byte array in C/C++. If not NA it is used to replace any non-convertible bytes in the input. Summary: Explained in this tutorial "Java Convert Byte Array Char Array", converting in between byte array and char array in simple Java code. Create an object by decoding size bytes of the encoded buffer s using the codec registered for encoding. Convert 823. This article discusses several ways to convert from System::String* to char* by using the following: Managed extensions for C++ in Microsoft Visual C++. On this page, you can convert halfwidth characters to fullwidth characters, or vice versa. 0 is to use the MemoryStream and perform the CopyTo operation on the source stream to the Memory Stream. // Before converting to an int type, check // to ensure that file is not larger than Integer. Eg, if you store all the special international alphabets too, then one byte is not enough. If you know the numerical type (int, uint, long, ulong, etc. There is no official documentation of this QML currently supports ECMAScript 5. I wanted to use the sprintf() to convert data from byte type to char. NET Framework is provides functionality to convert base data types to an array of bytes, and an array of bytes to base data types. This entry was posted in MFC and tagged char*, convert, convert CString to char* or LPTSTR, CString, LPTSTR on June 27, 2012 by cppforme. When an array of values is passed in, then a char array of the same length is returned. [code]char array[64]; int myInteger = 4711; sprintf( array, "%d", myInteger ); printf( "%s\n", array ); [/code]. I suggest using a wstring wherever you can, and using wstring::c_str() to convert to LPCWSTR (which is just a const wchar_t*) whenever you need it. I will be using Apache Commons Codec library to achieve the ‘Convert Image to String and String to Image in Java’. I'll cover the following topics in the code samples below: PageConvertFromUtf32, StringBuilder, GetCharCount, EventArgs, and Class. Do you reeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeally want a string, or do you just want to print it in hex? Either way I would suggest using the %x specifier for printf in a loop (either printf to the screen or sprintf to make a string); if you're planning to make a string out of it, you will need more space allocated, because the byte aa and the string "aa" aren't compatible with each other. Then you do not have to make any other changes to code you had written to work with string arrays. The number of blocks needed to represent a character varies from 1 to 4. It can either be ASCII or Unicode or UTF-8 or UTF-16. I mean like there is a "int X = 9000" and a char array buffer char *Y. Do you reeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeally want a string, or do you just want to print it in hex? Either way I would suggest using the %x specifier for printf in a loop (either printf to the screen or sprintf to make a string); if you're planning to make a string out of it, you will need more space allocated, because the byte aa and the string "aa" aren't compatible with each other. We can convert int to char in java using typecasting. byte and char. if they're in 512-byte blocks convert them to Mb etc), adjust column padding, and so on. typedef unsigned char byte ;. A group of 8 bits is called a byte. Convert character array to string in C++; Convert a String to Integer Array in C/C++; char* vs std:string vs char[] in C++; Move all special char to the end of the String; Minimum number of given operations required to convert a string to another string; Convert the string into palindrome string by changing only one character. Give it methods where the first parameter's declaration starts with the this keyword. Convert a hexadecimaly encoded text into an decoded string or download as a file using this free online hex to text decoder utility. I have a C# method which has image data in a byte array byte myImage I want to call a C++ DLL that receives the image data as an unsigned char *. ToUInt32 to convert that byte array to a uint. // Before converting to an int type, check // to ensure that file is not larger than Integer. It has following prototype: string (const char* s); where s is a pointer to an array of characters (such as a c-string). crunchify; /** * @author. See Also: expl c lib mbstowcs. When you try to print an unsigned 8-bit (1 byte - uint8_t) integer through cout, you will notice that instead of getting the arithmetic value of the variable on the output, you will get its character representation of the ASCII table. byte[] val = new byte[str. 2 provides steps for determining the encoding for an HTML5 page, but it contains some steps that could be adopted for other applications. Generic; using System. Though both mean the the same thing. Re: c++ convert from char[] to hex I'm not sure if you are working with numbers that you need to go about converting - the array indexes/values can be accessed the same way - just add "0x" to the beginning - saying "somearray[0xA]" is the same as "somearray[10]". C program to convert ASCII char[] to BYTE array. Overview of Strings in C. yes I can do it without pl/sql ! idea is to use the to_char for hex, then replace to binary, then to oct :-) note that I did use one "regexp_replace" together with a lpad with 0 to make an entire number of groups of 3 bits before conversion to octal. It has following prototype: string (const char* s); where s is a pointer to an array of characters (such as a c-string). using System; using System. If "wcstombs" encounters a wide character value that has no corresponding multibyte character representation, it returns -1 cast to the "size_t" type. Simple solution would be to use string class fill constructor string (size_t n, char c); which fills the string with n copies of character c. For example, VLFILL=C'*' pads with asterisks and VLFILL=X'00' pads with binary zeros:. I have a C# method which has image data in a byte array byte myImage I want to call a C++ DLL that receives the image data as an unsigned char *. In C, a string is an array of these characters (or 8-bit numbers) that is terminated with the value 0 or "null-terminated". The results will return all possible conversion options (bits, bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, petabytes, and exabytes). Made by @mathias — powered by utf8. CString (unicode project) / CStringW contains unicode characters (wchar_t) and the function GetBuffer returns a pointer to wchar_t; CStringA contains single-byte or multi-byte (MBCS) characters (char) and the function GetBuffer returns a pointer to char. "UTF-8 bytes as Latin-1 characters" is what you typically see when you display a UTF-8 file with a terminal or editor that only knows about 8-bit characters. To do this first we will convert the string into character array by using the ToCharArray() method of C# and then we will store in the character of array. Here, the ASCII character of integer value will be stored in the char variable. Oracle Conversion Functions Version 11. Converts a specified value to an 8-bit unsigned integer. expl c lib mbtowc. Convert character to. I'll cover the following topics in the code samples below: Visual Studio. When you try to convert a String object to Byte Array, you still have a character set and encoding and it depends on the encoding of your string whether its is in ASCII or UTF8. To convert byte array to hex value, we loop through each byte in the array and use String's format(). Data conversion instructions in assembly language programming. Table of contents. The encoding guarantees this to work. Convert Chinese characters to Unicode. A group of 8 bits is called a byte. Binary to ASCII text conversion table. In C, a string is an array of these characters (or 8-bit numbers) that is terminated with the value 0 or "null-terminated". If not NA it is used to replace any non-convertible bytes in the input. However, pointers only hold an address, they cannot hold all the characters in a character array. The number of blocks needed to represent a character varies from 1 to 4. We'll also understand the conversion mechanism and write our implementation to achieve this. Convert String offers free and secure online tools for converting strings between formats. This section illustrate the conversion from char to Byte. Generally, I'm dealing with a byte stream that I want to output as a string of hex. However, pointers only hold an address, they cannot hold all the characters in a character array. To convert higher data type into lower, we need to perform typecasting. In this post, we will discuss how to convert a char array to a C++ string. The string class provides a constructor which can accept a c-string (a null-terminated character sequence). 0, or the pointer NULL. UTF-8 text encoding uses variable number of bytes for each character. This requires delimiter between each hex number. C# | Converting string to byte array: Here, we are going to learn how to convert a given string to its equivalent byte[]? Submitted by IncludeHelp, on February 09, 2019 Prerequisite: How to declare and use byte[] in C#? String to Byte Array Conversion in C#. expl c lib wctomb. In the above program, we have a byte array named bytes. Convert console input to double: 10. Since many cryptographic algorithms e. This part of the code is for reading data from RFID tags, then it should convert data in order to be send using WiFi shield to another Arduino who will export that data to PC. Convert hex to text and hex decode strings. Endianness does not apply to the order of array elements. 2 B in Kilobits. 2 Bytes equals how many Kilobits. The reason i am posting this short post is because just recently i realized that many people do not know how to convert an integer to a character, me included (well, but now i know). Bit Calculator - Convert between bits/bytes/kilobits/kilobytes/megabits/megabytes/gigabits/gigabytes. Decoder class. Could you explain what you mean by "byte array"? All memory is composed of bits, 8 of which make a byte, of which a various amount is used for various primitives. Net, once you figured out which class libraries you needed to combine. The symbols include 0-9 and a-f (sometimes A-F). The results will return all possible conversion options (bits, bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, petabytes, and exabytes). Enter a number and choose the type of Units. Converts a specified value to a Unicode character. Convert Byte array to Base64 Char Array. Another disadvantage is that null bytes can occur in normal text, breaking all conventions for null-terminated C strings if you use the normal char type. Each of the conversion functions converts its parameter to an equivalent representation within its datatype. Upload failed. Basic Model for File I/O In C++, the file stream classes are designed with the idea that a file should simply be viewed as a stream or array of uninterpreted bytes. Converts the null-terminated wide character sequence beginning at the wide character pointed to by wptr, to byte_string The text has been machine-translated via Google Translate. On this page, you can convert halfwidth characters to fullwidth characters, or vice versa. In Java8 - How to Convert Array to Stream using Arrays. These are the fundamental ctypes data types: class ctypes. The ToByte method of the Convert class converts other base data types to a byte data type. The classical C++ mechanism to create a type alias is typedef. NET Framework > Based on your description, it seems that you need to copy a C# byte[] to a C++ char[] , am I right?. It creates a type alias; byte becomes another name for the type unsigned char. In C# , you can convert the Ascii value to its corresponding character by assigning the value to a character. stream() and Stream. I'll cover the following topics in the code samples below: PageConvertFromUtf32, StringBuilder, GetCharCount, EventArgs, and Class. Convert Chinese characters to Unicode. Recently I developed a program in PIC18F2550 that reads the data from the ADC and sends to the serial port. Bytes objects are immutable sequences of single bytes in the range between o and 255 (inclusive). Do you reeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeally want a string, or do you just want to print it in hex? Either way I would suggest using the %x specifier for printf in a loop (either printf to the screen or sprintf to make a string); if you're planning to make a string out of it, you will need more space allocated, because the byte aa and the string "aa" aren't compatible with each other. Convert text into hexadecimal format. The Encoding. This is a disadvantage for this encoding. If you’re new to C programming, you can take this beginners course on C. ToString() method. Sometimes, I want to convert it back again. One of the simplest way to convert a stream to byte array in C# 4. Though both mean the the same thing. I often find myself scouring the intern. Char represents a character value type and holds a single Unicode character value. In detail, I am writing one c++ Wrapper for my JNI. In this example, ascii_str is an input string that contains "Hello world!", we are converting it to a BYTE array. If you only want to display the hex values, you can use printf with format specifiers. This example uses extension methods to convert between byte arrays and hexadecimal strings. expl c lib wctomb. Net would using to represent the characters. Below I have code where the current byte is read into the variable 'byte". The first byte has a bunch of high-order one bits telling you how many bytes are used to encode the character, followed by a zero bit. Here, we are going to convert a char type variable into byte type variable. sub: character string. Convert text into hexadecimal format. rather than send the two-byte integer 0x010A (266 decimal), the program would send the three-byte ASCII string "266", since ASCII strings don't depend on byte ordering. That will make your sourcecode a lot more portable between systems for a long time to come. CString (unicode project) / CStringW contains unicode characters (wchar_t) and the function GetBuffer returns a pointer to wchar_t; CStringA contains single-byte or multi-byte (MBCS) characters (char) and the function GetBuffer returns a pointer to char. You first need to determine the encoding (if you don't know it). This section illustrate the conversion from char to Byte. I have a complex algorithm that accesses data from a byte[] (char[]) array in the way I described in my question. The Encoding. By default this attempts to convert the address into a domain name, however it can be instructed to produce a numeric address instead by setting the NI_NUMERICHOST flag:. How can I pass that information. How to convert character to ASCII in Java. Made by @mathias — powered by utf8. It’s recommended to only use char for storing characters. Converting a char to a string of zeroes and ones - that is, creating a string that is a binary representation of an unsigned integer with a maximum value of 255- is the kind of problem that can be a pain if you're starting out in programming. It is working fine for some cases but doesnt work with others. Convert byte array to char* in a clr wrapper. I'd like to read/convert bytes @ offset 2 & 3 into a UInt16 variable. I am looking for a C function to convert a raw hex data to a char. byte to char. In this post, we will discuss various methods to convert a char to a string in C++. encoding and errors have the same meaning as the parameters of the same name in the unicode() built-in. Simple solution would be to use string class fill constructor string (size_t n, char c); which fills the string with n copies of character c. UTF-8 text encoding uses variable number of bytes for each character. Convert byte array to char* in a clr wrapper. Enter a number and choose the type of Units. The BitConverter class has a static overloaded GetBytes method that takes an integer, double, bool, short, long, or other base type value and convert that. Create an object by decoding size bytes of the encoded buffer s using the codec registered for encoding. For example:. Converting a char to a string of zeroes and ones - that is, creating a string that is a binary representation of an unsigned integer with a maximum value of 255- is the kind of problem that can be a pain if you're starting out in programming. Please upload a file larger than 100x100 pixels; We are experiencing some problems, please try again. In the above program, we have a byte array named bytes. If you convert the float to ushort first, then to bytes, then transfer that, then put it back together into a ushort, then convert to float again, then endianness may matter and you should check the architecture when loading to ensure it's deserialized in the proper order. The hex characters are then stored as the two byte string representation of the characters. Could you explain what you mean by "byte array"? All memory is composed of bits, 8 of which make a byte, of which a various amount is used for various primitives. We can convert int to char in java using typecasting. There is no extra char in the byte array. Hex and octal UTF-8 byte input should have the bytes separated by spaces. I am trying to convert byte array to string. Results: ToCharArray is faster on a 300-char string. Converting an int to a binary string in C#. expl c lib mbtowc. 0, or the pointer NULL. convert byte to char. Again, depends on how that 4-byte variable is stored. Contrariwise it's very simple, just think that a char uses 1 byte while wchar_t uses 2 bytes. C# / C Sharp Forums on Bytes. ToChar(byteArray[i]); The problem is that this loop takes about 3 hours to complete. c_byte¶ Represents the C signed char datatype, and interprets the value as small integer. please do let. ie they will send a two digit code as an integer and I will need to convert it to the ascii equivalent ie they would send integer value 17227 which would represent CK or 12878 which would represent 2N I need to be able to convert the integer value which is in two bytes - one character per byte and convert each byte to the ascii character. What where the historical forces at work, the tradeoffs to make, in deciding to use groups of eight bits as the fundamental unit ? There were machines, once upon a time, using other word sizes,. Often, some kind of separator is used to make the encoded data easier for human reading. Convert double to string: 9. In the C language, a string is the type used to store any text including alphanumeric and special characters. The decimal data type has built-in methods for converting, although they are somewhat obscure. BTW this is for illustration. Just because Char is not guaranteed to be one byte anymore. In C, a string is an array of these characters (or 8-bit numbers) that is terminated with the value 0 or "null-terminated". Initial Steps for Unicode-enabling Microsoft C/C++ Source. Though both mean the the same thing. It creates a type alias; byte becomes another name for the type unsigned char. Online tool for hex decoding a string. Char array into byte array. First of all, a char literal looks like this: 'A' Do you mean a string literal, like "Hello world"?. Re: c++ convert from char[] to hex I'm not sure if you are working with numbers that you need to go about converting - the array indexes/values can be accessed the same way - just add "0x" to the beginning - saying "somearray[0xA]" is the same as "somearray[10]". Recently I developed a program in PIC18F2550 that reads the data from the ADC and sends to the serial port. please do let. On this page, you can convert halfwidth characters to fullwidth characters, or vice versa. Convert hex to text and hex decode strings. For this reason you must keep careful track of how many bytes are in C-style strings, particularly if you are adding to their length. Converting from CString to char* is conditional, becuase CString is a TCHAR based implementation. Detect errors when converting a string to a number What do you mean by "initial portion of a null-terminated byte string" in the first paragraph. Check single bye or double byte in C# Hi, I currently got stuck on how to create a function to check if a string value is single byte or double bytes (2by. expl c lib wctomb. // Before converting to an int type, check // to ensure that file is not larger than Integer. Modern applications increasingly use plain text to store and share data, especially in XML and SOAP formats. Convert Byte to Char in VB net. // Before converting to an int type, check // to ensure that file is not larger than Integer. My understanding is that you have a byte array whose values are between 0 and 9 and that you want to convert each byte value to a "0" to "9" character (to get a string) and then again from a "0" to "9" character back to a 0 to 9 byte ???. Is there one universal conversion to overcome this? And what is the vice versa conversion in this case, say to Unicode?. In the C language, a string is the type used to store any text including alphanumeric and special characters. NET’s built-in BCL Convert. Generic; using System. You first need to determine the encoding (if you don't know it). Convert text into hexadecimal format. Convert byte to char in C#. Linq; using System. You can pass character by character to itoa with radix 16. It will convert a byte array that looks like 2A 1F 2C to a string value "2A1F2C". It is working fine for some cases but doesnt work with others. com Convert data types programming in one click !. bytes or megabytes The main non-SI unit for computer data storage is the byte. ) just use. Byte Conversions. (This would normally be a single character, but can be more. Michael's solution converts the byte values to numeric strings. If you've ever had to write any interop code to use an unmanaged library in your C# application, you know how tricky it can be to get the data types correct. You can help to correct and verify the translation. It is quite difficult to correctly marshal strings between your C++/cli code and the. PowerShell convert first character to upper case November 04, 2014 Windows PowerShell Tip on this link is an excellent article on how to manipulate strings on PowerShell. Representation. This is Hardware related and not all vendors of computers use the same hardware, particularly microprocessors where the Byte tends to have the most meaning. This section illustrate the conversion from char to Byte. This encoding is compatible with ASCII. The classical C++ mechanism to create a type alias is typedef. There are Strings and they can (or can not) be represented using several encodings as byte arrays. The following example converts a string representation of a Char value with the ToChar method, using an IFormatProvider object that displays the type of the format provider for which it is called. The symbols include 0-9 and a-f (sometimes A-F). The input is not a valid Base-64 string as it contains a non-base 64 character, more than two padding characters, or an illegal character among the padding characters. In the example that follows, we will then convert that byte array back to a string, effectively showing you how to do the conversion both ways. 2 provides steps for determining the encoding for an HTML5 page, but it contains some steps that could be adopted for other applications. The number of blocks needed to represent a character varies from 1 to 4. It can either be ASCII or Unicode or UTF-8 or UTF-16. In the C language, a string is the type used to store any text including alphanumeric and special characters. From there, we need to convert each byte into it's 8-bit binary representation. For example, if you want to create a character date as MM/DD/YYYY, specify: %char(date_fld : *usa). GetBytes(stringToConvert);. So if the bytes would have the values 65, 66, 67, the string would become "656667". The rest of the code is working properly, this is the only part i need help with. Decimal) to and from bytes may appear to be a challenge, this is because the BitConverter and Convert classes do not have methods to convert decimals to and from bytes with. The conversion functions include int(), float(), char(), byte(), and others. Each string is terminated by a ' ' character or "NUL". using System; using System. com Convert data types programming in one click !. ToChar Method (Byte) char to byte. What is the best way to convert char[] to byte[] in C# 2010? Please note that we do not know in advance the format of a single char. Is there one universal conversion to overcome this? And what is the vice versa conversion in this case, say to Unicode?. It's called hr, and it will take stdin (or files) and convert numbers to human-readable format in a way that is (now) exactly the same as ls -h and so on, and it can select individual feeds in lines, scale pre-scaled units (e. UrlEncode, UrlDecode, Base64 encode, Base64 decode and MD5 hashing algorithms are among the many free tools available. I will be using Apache Commons Codec library to achieve the ‘Convert Image to String and String to Image in Java’. Empty throws a FormatException. This is a built-in value type in C#. In this article we are discussing that how to get the Corresponding hexadecimal value for each character in a string. \$\endgroup\$ – Meysam Jan 25 '15 at 11:32 1 \$\begingroup\$ Added a small benchmark with that size of stings, looks ok. Single-byte encodings share the decoder and encoder. I recently had the need to convert simple strings back and forth from Base64 encoding. Note that in this particular example, the 10-character string cannot hold HELLOWORLD plus the trailing 0x00 byte, so that would cause a program crash, or undefined behaviour, of some sort. Bytes objects are immutable sequences of single bytes [1] in the range between o and 255 (inclusive) [2]. 2 Bytes equals how many Megabits. In the original pre-release version of C#, this was legal for a brief time. The input is not a valid Base-64 string as it contains a non-base 64 character, more than two padding characters, or an illegal character among the padding characters. And they assume the input you wish to convert to binary is an integer — this character parsing chokes on types whose string representation includes a decimal point (float, double, decimal). In the above program, we have a byte array named bytes. You can help to correct and verify the translation. I've got an unsigned char array, that should be retrieved as a byte[] in java. This method reads the entire content of a file into a byte array. As of JDK 1. One byte can store 256 possible values. It's recommended to only use char for storing characters. With 8 bits converted to three characters and each character stored as 1-4 bytes you might use up to 12 bytes (or even more in some cases) for each byte of information. The decimal data type has built-in methods for converting, although they are somewhat obscure. On this page, you can convert halfwidth characters to fullwidth characters, or vice versa. Here, we are going to convert a char type variable into byte type variable. The classical C++ mechanism to create a type alias is typedef. Just don't mind the numbers too much, I tried to convert to binary and I think it's right, but I might have transposed some digits or something. The reason i am posting this short post is because just recently i realized that many people do not know how to convert an integer to a character, me included (well, but now i know). So 2 char are the equivalent of 1 wchar_t. How to convert character to ASCII in Java. String += appending ASCII value instead of char Mini Spy Had a little hiccup converting the byte array to a character in the range I wanted, Im sure my solution is a bit sloppy. Collections. Building a free downloadable text book on computer programming for university, college, community college, and high school classes in computer programming. In all cases, the conversion begins in initial shift state, unless non-initial starting state was provided to this wstring_convert constructor. Note that in this particular example, the 10-character string cannot hold HELLOWORLD plus the trailing 0x00 byte, so that would cause a program crash, or undefined behaviour, of some sort. A dedicated community for Garmin users to ask questions, provide answers, and share feedback. Description: Converts any value of a primitive data type (boolean, byte, char, color, double, float, int, or long) to its numeric character representation. Char represents a character value type and holds a single Unicode character value. The input is not a valid Base-64 string as it contains a non-base 64 character, more than two padding characters, or an illegal character among the padding characters. UTF-8 text encoding uses variable number of bytes for each character. For example, if you want to create a character date as MM/DD/YYYY, specify: %char(date_fld : *usa). An example of a hexadecimal number is 3BF2. Convert byte array to char* in a clr wrapper. This is Hardware related and not all vendors of computers use the same hardware, particularly microprocessors where the Byte tends to have the most meaning. png image file to embedded C/C++ code style array or string: {HEX: \x. 4 GB to byte = 4294967296 byte. I chose a 32 character string to use as a 16 byte key. In some cases, we have to convert String variable into a Byte array format, for example, JCE encryption. Converts a specified value to an 8-bit unsigned integer. NETUNICODECharacters, UnmanagedType, Exception, Bytes, and JIS. In this post, we will discuss how to convert a char array to a C++ string. Convert Byte array to Base64 Char Array. The Oracle / PLSQL TO_CHAR function converts a number or date to a string. By joining our community you will have the ability to post topics, receive our newsletter, use the advanced search, subscribe to threads and access many other special features. I'm new to C# and I wondered how to convert an Array of byte to array chars? Provided that I have this array. In C# , you can convert the Ascii value to its corresponding character by assigning the value to a character. Welcome to the p2p. to read an integer, which i read as binary, i have to read is character by character and then 'convert' it to numeric values or vice versa via modulus and exponentials (so far). 4) Converts the wide character sequence [first, last) to byte_string. C/C++ Code Generation Generate C and C++ code using MATLAB® Coder™. It is 2 bytes in size. The explicit conversion takes care of this. When you try to print an unsigned 8-bit (1 byte - uint8_t) integer through cout, you will notice that instead of getting the arithmetic value of the variable on the output, you will get its character representation of the ASCII table. With 8 bits converted to three characters and each character stored as 1-4 bytes you might use up to 12 bytes (or even more in some cases) for each byte of information. Enter a number and choose the type of Units. Generic; using System. ) If "byte", the indication is "" with the hex code of the byte. What is 810. Version 1: This uses ToCharArray. You can use the Byte radix option to set the radix of input bytes or leave it empty to automatically detect the radix. 2 GB to byte = 2147483648 byte. This is a built-in value type in C#. A string literal is already an array of bytes, because a string literal is an array of char, and char and byte mean exactly the same thing in C. You are visitor 14,179,339 to this calculator. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: