# Graph Java

The LibSea Graph File Format and Java Graph Library There are many graph file formats and graph libraries available today. We recently updated our Java Graph SDK to version 1. Siek // // Distributed under the Boost. yEd Graph Editor yEd is a powerful desktop application that can be used to quickly and effectively generate high-quality diagrams. Tom Sawyer Perspectives now offers AWS IAM and Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB support. Choose from different chart types, like: line and bar charts, pie charts, scatter graphs, XY graph and pie charts. Why do we choose Java? How to setup a Java programming environment?. Applying the Options B. Performance monitoring and profiling solution for Jenkins, TeamCity, Gradle, Maven, Ant, JUnit and TestNG. License graphql-java is licensed under the MIT License. For a labeled graph, you could store a dictionary instead of an Integer. *; /** * @author Narendra Yadala * Implementation of undirected graph represented using adjacency list. Query resolvers. a Java library of graph theory data structures and algorithms. edges > { nodes. Here is the listing of Java programming examples:. Move it to beginning and then slowly increase it to see how many iterations it takes to complete the spirograph. This value is the default value of the JAVA_CODEBASE= Java parameter in the html file. I've found a few applets but I want to plot a simple line graph in an application. DEPTH-FIRST SEARCH OF A GRAPH Some Applications: •Finding a path between twonodes x and y (an xy-path). There in general may be other nodes, but in this case it is the only one. Welcome to STAN! STAN, the leading Eclipse-based structure analysis tool for Java, brings together development and quality assurance in a natural way. Graphing Calculator 3D is a powerful software for visualizing math equations and scatter points. The Eclipse Foundation - home to a global community, the Eclipse IDE, Jakarta EE and over 350 open source projects, including runtimes, tools and frameworks. A vertex can represent. JNoSQL supports all the NoSQL models, like key-value, column family, document-oriented, and graph databases. Graph manipulation functions can be accessed by using the right-click context popup menu or the arrow button on the lower left. Java developers can use the SDK to integrate with data, relationships and intelligence of the Microsoft Graph API in both client and server-side applications. There are several possible ways to represent a graph inside the computer. Implementing Graphs with Adjacency Matrices in Java; Learn how to implement a graph using. An entity graph can be used as a fetch or a load graph. For Java versions < 8, the Duration() and Time() DSE Graph types will be exposed as Strings. In contrast with other common gnuplot java libraries, this library uses java structures to store the various plot parameters, including data-sets. Topcoder is a crowdsourcing marketplace that connects businesses with hard-to-find expertise. With larger numbers you will have to "zoom out. Provides one of the best mathematical graphing utility available on the Internet. Gephi is the leading visualization and exploration software for all kinds of graphs and networks. Figure 1 illustrates a basic graph. Java profiler,. The class will provide iterators for depth-ﬁrst, breadth-ﬁrst, and best-ﬁrst search. If you're using npm and a bundler like webpack, browserify or rollup, you can install dygraphs via: npm install --save dygraphs. Graph Theory, Part 2 7 Coloring Suppose that you are responsible for scheduling times for lectures in a university. Performance plots were generated using MATLAB R2010a. The intention for this project is a Java framework, that convert JavaBeans in a simplified representation. The vertices of a DAG can be ordered in such a way that every edge goes from an earlier vertex to a later vertex. JGACE - Java Graph and Chart Engine. We don't say data structure here and see the difference. Formally, a graph is an object consisting of a vertex set and an edge set. Formally, we say a topological sort of a directed acyclic graph G is an ordering of the vertices of G such that for every edge ( vi,. Adjacency List Python. Create diagrams manually, or import your external data for analysis. 1 Undirected Graphs. This allows the included graph to be defined in a separate module or project altogether, which maximizes reusability. Graphs; Learn about graphs, a powerful data structure that makes use of nodes and edges. Library for graph visualization submitted 1 year ago by alexeyr I am looking for a library which allows me to create a graph programmatically and show it in a Swing frame (no need for users to edit it, though moving/resizing nodes could be a bonus). These can be used to define a graph of entities and/or attributes at compile time that shall be fetched with a find or query method. Below is an implementation of a weighted graph in C++. But in case you want your graphical representation to be displayed with fancy features, you could avail the Flash or the Java Script. •Finding if the graph is connected. *; 004: import java. In the git terminal window, cd to the azure-cosmos-db-graph-java-getting-started folder. Image a/b = k as a link between node a and b, the weight from a to. Graphing Calculator 3D is a powerful software for visualizing math equations and scatter points. These pairs are known as edges (also called links or lines), and for a directed graph are also known as. Sample Images 29 example images are available in ImageJ's File/Open Samples submenu. Tutorial: how to program in Java? --- A graph drawing example. The emphasis in this article is the shortest path problem (SPP), being one of the fundamental theoretic problems known in graph theory, and how the Dijkstra algorithm can be used to solve it. Some examples of how you can use the Knowledge Graph Search API include: Getting a ranked list of the most notable entities that match certain criteria. Background on Graph-Parallel Computation (Optional) If you want to get started coding right away, you can skip this part or come back. Graphviz is open source graph visualization software. Hello people…! In this post, I will talk about Graph Theory Basics, which are its terminologies, types and implementations in C. The codes below can be used take input and store graphs for graph algorithm related problems. Adjacency matrix for undirected graph is always symmetric. Vector fields on curves: attach a vector field to a curve, to show what a vector field looks like where it crosses the curve. 2 million downloads to date. Towards the end of the video course, you will walk through a real-world graph analysis problem using Java to read your email communications and graph them for cluster detection. She lives in St. Exceptions are thrown if errors are detected. This immediate feedback gives students a kinesthetic connection between making the emission graph and viewing the spectrum being represented. Saving Graphs and Tables 4. , vertices pointed to by arcs that start in v), and (optionally), v's direct predecessors. The Graph class represents an undirected graph of vertices named 0 through V - 1. Undirected graphs Adjacency lists BFS DFS Euler tour 2 Undirected Graphs GRAPH. Graphing Calculator 3D is a powerful software for visualizing math equations and scatter points. • Sparse graph: very few edges. We denote it G(V, E). Clone an undirected graph. Currently, we have implemented an abstract Lattice Graph Generator with a Square Lattice Implementation. The CSS based charts or graphs are quite simple to create and generate static harts and we could also style them according to our requirements. Re: Plotting graphs in Java 843806 Jan 7, 2008 4:26 AM ( in response to 843805 ) 132949, It is unlikely (but I agree not impossible) that rahulgupta will see this and answer you, and besides, if there is a decent solution available, it's best to request that it be posted here and shared with all. Move it to beginning and then slowly increase it to see how many iterations it takes to complete the spirograph. A graph database is essentially a collection of nodes and edges. While implementing graph it makes sense to make data structure simpler so that solving the actual problem is not very tricky. microsoft-graph-core - The core library for making calls to Microsoft Graph. Plotting a graph in Java Netbeans. JUNG supports a number of algorithms which includes routines like clustering, decomposition, and optimization. Graph-processing algorithms generally first build an internal representation of a graph by adding edges, then process it by iterating over the vertices and over the vertices adjacent to a given vertex. graphql-java-tools defines two types of classes: data classes, which model the domain and are usually simple POJOs, and resolvers, that model the queries and mutations and contain the resolver functions. Object implements java. A graph that has no bridges is said to be two-edge connected. In this article, you will learn with the help of examples the BFS algorithm, BFS pseudocode and the code of the breadth first search algorithm with implementation in C++, C, Java and Python programs. Java 2D & 3D visual entity relationship. I need to plot a fairly simple line chart/graph, using some data generated previously from another Java program (run from the console) that is output to a text file. A graph (mathematical lingo for a network) is a flexible data structure that allows a more agile and rapid style of development. Choosing the Graphs C. Formally, a graph is an object consisting of a vertex set and an edge set. Get unlimited access to the best stories on Medium — and support writers while you're. You can represent a graph in many ways. User Account. The Graph API is the primary way for apps to read and write to the Facebook social graph. The Eclipse CFG Generator is a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE that generates control flow graphs for Java code. Tutorial: how to program in Java? --- A graph drawing example. Java Graph and Chart Engine listed as JGACE. List; 006: 007: /** 008: A graph consisting. It has important applications in networking, bioinformatics, software engineering, database and web design, machine learning, and in visual interfaces for other technical domains. Java developers have spoken, and we’ve listened. 3 Digraph Applications Digraph Vertex Edge financial stock, currency transaction transportation street intersection, airport highway, airway route. Below is the syntax highlighted version of Graph. A directed graph is sometimes called a digraph or a directed network. Part I An Adjacency List is Nothing but and Array of Linked List which is more memory efficient than Adjacency Matrix for sparse graph. X-13-Graph Java is an implementation of the Census Bureau's X-13-Graph program coded entirely in Java. A graph can be defined as group of vertices and edges that are used to connect these vertices. In the above Graph, the set of vertices V = {0,1,2,3,4} and the set of edges E = {01, 12, 23, 34, 04, 14, 13}. The "Design" window only appears when your graph is selected. For example the StarWarSchema and the tests (among a lot of other things) are simply adapted to the Java world. java System Dependence Graph API I want to implement Discrete Cosine transform for embedding invisible watermark in an image. With the new version (2. Currently, we have implemented an abstract Lattice Graph Generator with a Square Lattice Implementation. So does anyone out there know how to plot a simple 2D graph for an Application ( not an APPLET). java charts and graphs - EasyCharts - chart gallery. The latest release of yEd Graph Editor is version 3. If a fetch graph is used, only the attributes specified by the entity graph will be treated as FetchType. Home1 | Home2 | Java. We use Java Collections to store the Array of Linked Lists. Graphing the Derivative of a Function. 1 Install via Gradle. Create a Graph data structure and perform Breadth-First Search (BFS) and Depth-First Search (DFS) Graph search algorithms using Java. Note: A root node has no parent. Coding graphs for data mining in Python using Java platform. Your help would be greatly appreciated as i am new to Java Swing. CoPlot Software for Great Scientific Graphs, Maps, and Technical Drawings. java-graph help - Java Beginners java-graph help sir/madam I wanted to design a shortest path Algorithm. Clone an undirected graph. A bridge in a graph is an edge that, if removed, would separate a connected graph into two disjoint subgraphs. Marketing APIs. *; public class Graph {private HashMap> myAdjList; private HashMap myVertices; private static final TreeSet EMPTY_SET = new TreeSet(); private int myNumVertices; private int myNumEdges; /** * Construct empty Graph */ public Graph() {myAdjList = new HashMap. The graph of `f(x)` is shown in black. The study of graphs and algorithms associated with graphs forms an entire field of study called graph theory. A bridge in a graph is an edge that, if removed, would separate a connected graph into two disjoint subgraphs. Sourcegraph is a free, self-hosted code search and intelligence server that helps developers find, review, understand, and debug code. Compile-time Validation. Graph Valid Tree (Java) Given n nodes labeled from 0 to n - 1 and a list of undirected edges (each edge is a pair of nodes), check if these edges form a valid tree. For a labeled graph, you could store a dictionary instead of an Integer. 1 entity graphs are a better solution for it. I'm trying to implement a directed, weighted graph in Java but I'm having trouble. This post illustrates the simple implementation of Graph data structure in Java: Graph Node Implementation:. For some graphs, it may not make sense to represent them explicitly. Graph theory is the study of the properties of graphs. To maintain strong typing and intuitive design, it is common to represent GraphQL types with equivalent Java classes, and fields with methods. 代写 game GUI Java graph software react Assignment 1. We will discuss two of them: adjacency matrix and adjacency list. Gephi is open-source and free. a string like this is sent and a line graph is plotted:- 12,3,4,45,6,76,34,23,232,4,3,556 if anyone can suggests something then that would be good. java 1 public class WeightedGraph { 2 3 private int [][] edges;. Figure 1 A graph structure The vertices in Figure 1 are the numbered circles, and the edges are the lines joining the circles. Graph-processing algorithms generally first build an internal representation of a graph by adding edges, then process it by iterating over the vertices and over the vertices adjacent to a given vertex. You need to run the Main. edges > { nodes. 2 Specifying the Location of the Java Applets By default, the location of the SAS Java archive files is specified by the APPLETLOC= system option. The 29463 part in the file name is the PID of the Java program. The CSS based charts or graphs are quite simple to create and generate static harts and we could also style them according to our requirements. Before you start this tutorial, you should have the Java SE Development Kit (JDK) and Maven installed on your development machine. Thousands of practical applications. The nodes are sometimes also referred to as vertices and the edges are lines or arcs that connect any two nodes in the graph. Your answer should be given as a word or as a whole number. The primary way for apps to read and write to the Facebook social graph. License graphql-java is licensed under the MIT License. nodes U { name }, this_pre. The above C++ algorithm to clone graphs take O(N) complexity in both time and space where N is the number of nodes in the graph. For example, it is currently used at Facebook to analyze the social graph formed by users and their connections. * graphs with weighted / unweighted / labeled or any user-defined edges. Get Started. java file to see the traversal output. Easiest JAVA Solution with Graph Explanation. 0 The library is completely written in PHP and ready to be used in any PHP scripts (both CGI/APXS/CLI versions of PHP are supported). Very easy GUI to manage 1000s of data series efficiently. An undirected graph is sometimes called an undirected network. With Oracle Database 19c, in the cloud and on premises, it powers applications from GIS and location services to fraud detection, social networks, linked data and knowledge. At this point, we have the necessary libraries to create our DataTable object and display our graph, however, we need to be sure that the visualization is completely loaded, otherwise we'll get JavaScript errors and our graph won't display. It supports the following two primary operations: add an edge to the graph, iterate over all of the vertices adjacent to a vertex. The graph is a data structure that is used to model a very large number of real world problems. To erase the graph and all input fields, click the "Clear" button. ImageJ Applet The applet version of ImageJ should open in a separate "ImageJ" window. Tom Sawyer Software enables organizations to federate enterprise data and build scalable and flexible graph and data visualization applications. 1 Undirected Graphs Graph API maze exploration depth-first search breadth-first search connected components challenges References: Algorithms in Java, Chapters 17 and 18. Home; Java; 2D Graphics GUI; 3D; import java. Graphs/Java/Adjacency Map Lite From charlesreid1 Note: this implementation is more practical for a lightweight problem, such as a programming competition or coding challenge. Image below shows the graph generated at the end of the tutorial. GraphStream is a Java library for the modeling and analysis of dynamic graphs. This is my second post on Entity Graphs, one of the features introduced with JPA 2. Dijkstra's Algorithms describes how to find the shortest path from one node to another node in a directed weighted graph. Part I An Adjacency List is Nothing but and Array of Linked List which is more memory efficient than Adjacency Matrix for sparse graph. When you think you have a good representation of `f'(x)`, click the "Show results!" button below the applet. The Knowledge Graph Search API lets you find entities in the Google Knowledge Graph. In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. Here, we are going to learn about some other Data Structures in Java: Graph Data Structure in Java, Trie Data Structure in Java, Segment Tree and Suffix Tree with their example. Undirected graphs Adjacency lists BFS DFS Euler tour 2 Undirected Graphs GRAPH. Make sure the libtensorflow. Weighted Graphs 7. Below is the syntax highlighted version of Graph. A bridge in a graph is an edge that, if removed, would separate a connected graph into two disjoint subgraphs. 1 Introducing The Graph Database For most types of data storage, there is the concept of some elements of data (whether they be for example data nodes or data tables) having more precedence, or importance, over other elements. I have to make a graph and show the graph of f(x)=x^3. Tutorial: how to program in Java? --- A graph drawing example. The Graph API refers to the core elements of what composes the structure of a graph within the Gremlin Traversal Machine (GTM), such as the Graph, Vertex and Edge Java interfaces. Here is where the two algorithms diverge: Prim completes the tree by adding edge DC, while Dijkstra adds either AC or BC, because paths A-C and A-B-C (both with total distance 30) are shorter than path A-B-D-C (total. 0 The library is completely written in PHP and ready to be used in any PHP scripts (both CGI/APXS/CLI versions of PHP are supported). A typical graph consists of vertices (nodes, cells), and of edges that are the connecting lines between the nodes. Definition of graph: Two-dimensional drawing showing a relationship (usually between two set of numbers) by means of a line, curve, a series of bars, or other symbols. In this article, you will learn with the help of examples the BFS algorithm, BFS pseudocode and the code of the breadth first search algorithm with implementation in C++, C, Java and Python programs. Solutions Products Featured Featured Explore some of the most popular Azure products. Implicit representations. Undirected graphs representation. Graph public Graph(java. Bar graph maker online. GraphQL Java Home This is the home page of the GraphQL Java implementation. To demonstrate, build. A connected acyclic graph Most important type of special graphs - Many problems are easier to solve on trees Alternate equivalent deﬁnitions: - A connected graph with n −1 edges - An acyclic graph with n −1 edges - There is exactly one path between every pair of nodes - An acyclic graph but adding any edge results in a cycle. To demonstrate, build. Requirements 3. Java Universal Network/Graph (JUNG) is a Java framework that provides extensible language for modeling, analysis, and visualization of any data that can be represented as a graph. 5 Case Study: javac Graph. DefaultMutableTreeNode. A graph can be seen as a cyclic tree, where the vertices (Nodes) maintain any complex relationship among them instead of having parent child relationship. Move it to beginning and then slowly increase it to see how many iterations it takes to complete the spirograph. grf files (internal p. There are a few different ways this can be done, and it is optimal to use one representation over the other depending on what type of graph you need to represent, ho. Graphs; Learn about graphs, a powerful data structure that makes use of nodes and edges. Common Graphs. java for determining whether a given graph is edge connected. NET programmers access to a wide variety of problem-solving algorithms and techniques. Query resolvers. The Graph API is the primary way for apps to read and write to the Facebook social graph. This applet that draws the graph of a function that can include references to the "constants" a, b, and c. The API provides support for rich interactive charts, with colorbars, tooltips and overlays. Besides an object-oriented API to the graph database, working with Node, Relationship, and Path objects, it also offers highly customizable, high-speed traversal- and graph-algorithm implementations. Provides one of the best mathematical graphing utility available on the Internet. We recently updated our Java Graph SDK to version 1. Log Graphs. Gephi is open-source and free. Flame Graphs • Flame Graphs: – x-axis: alphabetical stack sort, to maximize merging – y-axis: stack depth – color: random (default), or a dimension • Currently made from Perl + SVG + JavaScript – Multiple d3 versions are being developed • References: –. Java; Chart; Line Chart; 1. Processing is a flexible software sketchbook and a language for learning how to code within the context of the visual arts. JFreeChart tutorial shows how to create charts in Java with JFreeChart. Investigate the relationships between linear equations, slope, and graphs of lines. Multiple graphs: graph multiple functions of various types in the same plane. In the graph on the right, starting from the vertex A, both Prim and Dijkstra begin by choosing edge AB, and then adding edge BD. Plotly JavaScript library supports generating various charts. In this course, you’ll learn about data structures, like graphs, that are fundamental for working with structured real world data. Java Applet Copyright ©1998 James Brennan. 1 Register your application. Video tutorial to create Graph by Cody Henrichsen its easily understandable Drawing graphs in Java Using the Java Swing and AWT libraries to draw a histogram of data stored in an array. Of course, you can program graphs using the native (for these libraries) Java language. Java Graphs and Charts Why use Java Graphs in Business Applications. Meet Neo4j: The graph database platform powering today's mission-critical enterprise applications, including artificial intelligence, fraud detection and recommendations. How HashMap works in Java? With. In this tutorial, you will learn to include graphs into a simple Java web application. Create a Bar Graph with HTML5 Canvas and JavaScript by William Malone This tutorial will show how to create a simple bar graph on an HTML5 Canvas using JavaScript. Graph Implementation in Java using Collections In this post, we will see graph implementation in Java using Collections for weighted and unweighted, graph and digraph. Navigating Through the Graphs D. Since it is in the java. For example: What is a tree in data structures? What is Depth First Search and its implementation in Java and/or C? Write a program to traverse all nodes of the graph or graph traversals?. Representing a weighted graph using an adjacency array: If there is no edge between node i and node j , the value of the array element a[i][j] = some very large value Otherwise , a[i][j] is a floating value that is equal to the weight of the edge ( i , j ). Background on Graph-Parallel Computation (Optional) If you want to get started coding right away, you can skip this part or come back. But with Java, there's another way to visualize the same CPU workload which provides some additional insight: a Java package flame graph. There are several possible ways to represent a graph inside the computer. Or how to achieve graph based nirvana in Java 1 Introduction JUNG2 is a major revision of the popular Java Universal Network/Graph framework. Regular graph parameters are persisted either in *. Note that ImageJ requires Java 1. Apache FreeMarker is a template engine: a Java library to generate text output (HTML web pages, e-mails, configuration files, source code, etc. Java Python; statically typed. Introduction to Graphs; Learn about the components that make up a graph - vertices and edges - along with the graph vocabulary and the various types of graphs. Solutions Products Featured Featured Explore some of the most popular Azure products. So it is easy and uniform to handle and control the access to JavaBeans properties. We denote it G(V, E). Access Pages, Users, Posts, Groups, Events and more. She lives in St. // Mutators public void addNode (String name) //@requires name != null // REQUIRES: name is not the name of a node in this // MODIFIES: this // EFFECTS: adds a node named name to this: // this_post = this_pre. Make sure the libtensorflow. Java Universal Network/Graph (JUNG) is a Java framework that provides extensible language for modeling, analysis, and visualization of any data that can be represented as a graph. See more examples. A graph is a non-linear data structure consisting of vertices (also known as nodes) and edges (links between vertices). Graphs in this context differ from the more familiar coordinate plots that portray mathematical relations and functions. PGX is a toolkit for. However, in a tree, each node (except the root node) comprises exactly one parent node. Common Graphs. Sample Images 29 example images are available in ImageJ's File/Open Samples submenu. Data Subspans F. Get Started. This week we'll start getting technical, introducing you to the central data structure in the course: Graphs. flexible any object can be used for vertex and edge types, with full type safety via generics edges can be directed or undirected, weighted or unweighted simple graphs, multigraphs, and pseudographs unmodifiable graphs allow modules to provide “read-only” access to internal graphs. Undirected graphs representation. Timestamp() will be exposed as a java. The basic goal of the algorithm is to determine the shortest path between a starting node, and the rest of the graph. 3 Enable ProGuard (Android) The nature of the Graph API is such that the SDK needs quite 2. GraphX is Apache Spark's API for graphs and graph-parallel computation, with a built-in library of common algorithms. Graphs/Guava. Teacher support Our free Blueroom website offers teaching resources and the chance to engage with other educators using BlueJ around the world. Not all graphs are simple. Graphs are flexible, meaning it allows the user to insert new data into the existing graph without loss of application functionality. 001: import java. 2 million downloads to date. Thanks to Javascript and a bunch of talented developers, we have at our disposal solutions for easily adding graphs. Ive Googled around and found lots of things like jgraph and jchart which all claim to be able to do what I want, but the stuff they are doing is a bit too far over my head for me to be able to use them. The Open Graph Viz Platform. If would be great if someone knows about intentions of having an official Java client for the Graph API or any of the REST APIs. Graph Implementation in Java using Collections In this post, we will see graph implementation in Java using Collections for weighted and unweighted, graph and digraph. JGraphT is a free Java class library that provides mathematical graph-theory objects and algorithms. Tutorial: how to program in Java? --- A graph drawing example. This graph-searching tool is designed to help you learn about different search strategies. An undirected graph with 10 and 11 edges. A vertex can represent. using Adjacency List. Graph Titles D. Learn about position, velocity, and acceleration graphs. This example graph is a directed graph. * various edge multiplicity options, including: simple-graphs, multigraphs, pseudographs. jsGraph proposes tons of nice features to make your graph interactive, through a full-featured javascript API. A graph G is bipartite if V(G) is the union. helloc93 235. JGraphT is a free Java graph library that provides mathematical graph-theory objects and algorithms. For instance, consider cities in your country. Java Recursive Algorithm (DFS) to clone graph. Make sure the libtensorflow. edges > { nodes. A nicely presented and fairly comprehensive text. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: