Webgl Buffer

It is commonly used as a rendering context of an HTML5 Canvas element , dynamically drawn using Javascript ( reference ). In this lesson we cover setting up WebGL for use, including creating a canvas, getting the WebGL rendering context and clearing the canvas to a particular color. Also, on Windows, WebGL usually runs on top D3D9 or D3D11 instead of GL, which may add additional overhead. docs examples. So if a cube needs positions, normals, and texture coords it would use 3 buffers. Mac looks fine, which seems strange. Unity WebGL A JavaScript API that renders 2D and 3D graphics in a web browser. Each vertex is assigned a color attribute, and WebGL interpolates between these colors using a varying variable. To set the contents of a WebGL buffer object, you use the gl. This is done as follows, in our render function, directly before our call to gl. WebGL GPU Particles a WebGL GPU particle simulator, simulating 1 million particles at 60 fps! It seems that we can't get the position from the compute buffer. These arrays are transfered to the graphics hardware and called buffers. # CVE-2019-11693: Buffer overflow in WebGL bufferdata on Linux Reporter crixer Impact high Description. Then it writes the results back to the corresponding framebuffers, all at once thanks to the webgl_draw_buffers extension. Our elements are a handy helper, but the only thing really required from WebGl is the index buffer. You will send the required data to the GPU byte by byte. WebGL is a branch of. To answer this question, we must see what exactly is that needs to be done to go from binary blobs and images to objects renderable by WebGL. The algorithm to do this is as follows :. Uniform buffer objets. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, hardware vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights present real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Now that we've drawn our first geometric shapes in Chapter 2, it's time to step up the complexity a bit. Security researcher Aki Helin used the Address Sanitizer tool to find a buffer overflow write when rendering some WebGL content. 0 The definition of 'bindBuffer' in that specification. The WEBGL_draw_buffers extension is part of the WebGL API and enables a fragment shader to write to several textures, which is useful for deferred shading, for example. We will also create an array to store our vertices in. The bufferdata function in WebGL is vulnerable to a buffer overflow with specific graphics drivers on Linux. Saving out video frames from a WebGL app Recently, I wanted to create a small video clip of a WebGL demo of mine. I'm trying to share a float Array between c# and webgl browser javascript: Question 1: When I put a javascript function into jslib, does that mean it's accessible from both the webgl webpage javascript and c#? Question 2: How do I call a jslib function from the browser javascript? Do I use _(Underscore) or cwrap or just call it?. Note: this is alpha software - if you find bugs, let me know (or better yet, fork and fix them!. draw_instanced. Introduction to shaders. 0 Compute"--use-angle=gl Run ANGLE with OpenGL backend because Shader Storage Buffer Object is now on implementing and there are some use cases which do not work well on D3D backend yet. Generally, that's pretty convenient - but when the thing in front is translucent, you NEED to see things that are behind it. For an example of what WebGL can do, take a look at this WebGL demo video (viewable in all browsers!). Click To Show Running WebGL. Our elements are a handy helper, but the only thing really required from WebGl is the index buffer. InitShaders method. Framebuffers. In this article, we will talk about what new features come with WebGL 2 and what cool things can we do with them. If you add an acid or a base to a buffered solution, its pH will not change significantly. Buffers represent unstructured binary data, which can be. What is the logic of binding buffers in webgl? If I don't rebind the vertex buffer before drawing arrays, the console complains about an attempt to access out of. After that, we set the value of the current VBO to the provided data, with bufferData(). In WebGL, a framebuffer is a data structure that organizes the memory resources that are needed to render an image. For WebGL, we pass a different string: "webgl". I found it performed faster by just rendering individual triangles, because that way we can render all the triangles for all the data points in a single buffer and one "draw" call. EDIT: This too seems to be just another browser's way of saying "Array buffer allocation failed", as evidenced by the fact that UnityLoader. Extensions. In web technology terms, WebGl is the 3d drawing context of the HTML5 element. This can make your draw calls fairly chatty as they make hundreds or thousands of gl. I guess we should start this tutorial by addressing what was happening in the previous tutorial on rotation and translation. EXT_color_buffer_float is the WebGL 2 extension. InitBuffers method. I am exporting from Flash to WebGL, which is awesome, but it doesnt allow for the background (stage) color to be removed. The idea is to create a very realistic looking rain effect and put it in different scenarios. If we call this code, we still don't see anything. Filling the index buffer. When the image is ready, I will prepare the model by converting the image into a WebGL texture and buffer the three arrays into WebGL buffers. But I can't understand the difference between buffer object and an array. Introduction Super-computer in your PC. wasm file with all of wasm-bindgen's annotations removed. I featured 9 Mind-Blowing Canvas Demos and then took it up a level with 9 Mind-Blowing WebGL Demos, but I want to outdo. The Z buffer doesn't work for transparent polygons. You do this by creating buffer objects and loading data into them. The Element Array Buffer WebGL is only a tool. WebGL Book - A WebGL Tutorial Reference Book. minimason that you can find in examples/wavefront. The two best books I've found (so far) are: WebGL Programming Guide: Interactive 3D Graphics Programming with WebGL by Kouichi Matsuda and Rodger Lea WebGL Beginner's Guide by Diego Cantor and Brandon Jones I found the Cantor and Jones book first and have more experience with it, so we'll use their examples. UNSIGNED_SHORT, indexBuffer); It seems to enable drawing of multiple line segments in a single draw call in WebGL. To do this, first we ask WebGL what locations it assigned to the. Editor's Draft: Updated definition for WebGL 2. Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible. The COLOR_BUFFER_BIT constant indicates the buffers currently enabled for color writing. It is important because WebGL is expected to be widely supported on all platforms from mobile to desktop. Electric Fluid Menu. WebGL as a State Machine: Buffer Manipulation When dealing with buffers for the getParameter , getBufferParameter , and isBuffer functions, new information about the state of the rendering pipeline becomes available to us. LINES, 16, gl. WebGL is the web implementation of OpenGL ES2 (Embedded System 2). com is highly recommended. I featured 9 Mind-Blowing Canvas Demos and then took it up a level with 9 Mind-Blowing WebGL Demos, but I want to outdo. I also figure this is a good chance to explain WebGL, how to set it up, and some of the dirty JavaScript tricks used here. It failed so I tried the more simple test with NEVER - failed too) 😦 Is it not implemented yet in. Since a position is defined by x, y, and z coordinates we tell it "3". A PNG image that holds our elevation data. WebGL code executes on a computer display card's Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), which must support shader rendering. LINES, 16, gl. // Our buffer is an array of (x,y) points, so 2 floating point values // per vertex. 13] Data is transferred to WebGL using ArrayBuffer and views. WebGL - Interleaved Vertex Buffer. Today you'll see how to quickly create an interactive "fake" 3D effect for images with. Index buffer objects (IBO) − It holds the indices (index data) of the graphical model that is going to be rendered. Step 1: generate a new buffer object with gl. The stencil buffer is an optional extension of the depth buffer that gives you more control over the question of which fragments should be drawn and which shouldn't. I already have the geometries I wish to render on my WebGL client available as preprocessed vertex and index buffers (and color buffers, but let's ignore them for now). I am trying to get a three. WebGL: drawElements: bound vertex attribute buffers do not have sufficient size for given indices from the bound element array. Note: I am only including my top userChrome. WebGL Book - A WebGL Tutorial Reference Book. Also, on Windows, WebGL usually runs on top D3D9 or D3D11 instead of GL, which may add additional overhead. See Changelist. WebGL programs are written in JavaScript. In this article, we'll give an overview of the general tricks and techniques used to make this effect. Double buffer If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. In the previous chapters we've looked at the different types of buffers OpenGL offers: the color, depth and stencil buffers. Kongregate [Endless Dream] The browser could not allocate enough memory for the WebGL content. I already have the geometries I wish to render on my WebGL client available as preprocessed vertex and index buffers (and color buffers, but let's ignore them for now). These samples attempt to draw as many 32x32 images as possible at 60 frames a second using various techniques. A WebGL Application is created via the PhiloGL constructor function and returned on the onLoad callback. How many buffers you use is up to you. The algorithm to do this is as follows :. The upcoming WebXR. js is used as a plugin on a system which alreay used the WebGL context. The latest 0. draw_range_arrays. getContext( "webgl", WebGLContextAttributes? optionalAttribs) Returns a WebGL 1. After an object is rendered, it writes its current depth to the depth buffer. void copyBufferSubData(GLenum readTarget, GLenum writeTarget, GLintptr readOffset, GLintptr writeOffset, GLsizeiptr size) ( OpenGL ES 3. drawElements(gl. Our elements are a handy helper, but the only thing really required from WebGl is the index buffer. WebGL is the version of OpenGL, which is a 3D engine. I have never dealt directly with webgl itself before and was having trouble figuring out how exactly to implement what you solution #2. “ WebGL Programming Guide is a great way to go from a WebGL newbie to a WebGL expert. preserveDrawingBuffer=false is tricky, because after we present our buffer, we. After that, you want to move that data into the GPU RAM, by creating a new Vertex Buffer Object (VBO). toml enables features necessary to obtain and use a WebGL rendering context. As WebGL is based on OpenGL and brings in a new concept of 3D graphics programming to web development, it may seem unfamiliar to even experienced Web developers. You call drawXXX once for each thing you want to draw each time you want to draw it. WebGL extensions are available using the WebGLRenderingContext. Also has the code to add PhiloGL. It's a general software development principle that functions should only perform their advertised operations, and not have any unexpected side effects. The Unity WebGL build option allows Unity to publish content as JavaScript programs which use HTML5 technologies and the WebGL rendering API to run Unity content in a web browser. , post your thoughts on the discussion board or read fellow gamers' opinions. To make things lighter, we’ll take advantage of the fact that the background is out of focus, so we’ll use a small texture for it and stretch it out; in WebGL, texture size directly impacts performance. 0 is growing fast - we may hit 65%+ adoption next year! * WebGL 1. New WebGL 2. The GPU Command Buffer system is the way in which Chrome talks to the GPU either OpenGL or OpenGL ES (or OpenGL ES emulated through ANGLE). Indeed, WebGL is a really powerful but really low-level API, and you have to do everything by yourself, from creating the buffers to defining vertex structures. Each vertex is associated with (x,y,z) coordinates, and optionally additional data such as color, surface normal or texture coordinates. The square is drawn using WebGL. THE QUESTION: Is there a way to remove the stagecolor for webGL output?. Filling the index buffer. js A data buffer is a region of a memory used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another. In the webgl() function we've added some code. Once the data is in the buffer we need to tell WebGL how to get data out of it and provide it to the vertex shader's attributes. When it's bound, any call to a function will operate on this buffer and this is what happens when we invoke bufferData. Typically, the front and back buffer assignments are swapped at the completion of each frame to prevent the need to copy buffer contents and/or maintain synchronization with the DSS video system. To do this, first we ask WebGL what locations it assigned to the. WebGL Caps Viewer is based on GX3D. I can't seem to figure out my problem with stencil buffer in object outlining algo. A buffer object is a mechanism provided by WebGL that indicates a memory area allocated in the system. toml enables features necessary to obtain and use a WebGL rendering context. In this article, we will talk about what new features come with WebGL 2 and what cool things can we do with them. OpenGL Insights. This is a Node. This is done as follows, in our render function, directly before our call to gl. It can be considered a low level that has the ability to update bitmap images and does not. Step 1: generate a new buffer object with gl. Frame Buffer Object. Here is our raw data for each tile: A JPEG image that contains our lightmap. by Shuai Shao github repo for article here. What is WebGL? WebGL is a JavaScript API that allows us to implement interactive 3D graphics, straight in the browser. While this. If a second buffer has been allocated, it is called a Back Buffer and the SGX will render to it, instead of the front buffer. fbo_multisample. Its ability to use HTML5 Canvas elements to generate graphics dynamically made it easy for web designers and developers to create smooth 2D and 3D effects. Post-processing with WebGL. Note: this is alpha software - if you find bugs, let me know (or better yet, fork and fix them!. Uniform buffer objets. Reading on WebGL. COPY_WRITE_BUFFER, gl. Next we move on to WebGL functions to create a buffer and connect the vertex array to this buffer. js (start here to. A WebGL/OpenGL Framebuffer is really just a collection of state and not actually a buffer of any kind. 1 has also been extended to provide opaque multiview framebuffer support, with corresponding views / viewports. This means that it's much faster. bufferUsage:int [read-only]. webgl_circle. If you want to get stuff done use three. js is used as a plugin on a system which alreay used the WebGL context. WebVR extension. Extensions. I was one of them who pre-ordered the 1. It being a VBO just denotes what the GPU can use the memory for. I want to create a graphics object that contains buffers and data for each individual object to appear in the scene. 만약 질문이나 내용의 정정이 필요하다면 댓글로 남겨주세요. It started as an extension of creationix/node-webgl and their great example com. 2019 will hopefully see more WebGL extensions moving into implementation. UNSIGNED_SHORT, indexBuffer); It seems to enable drawing of multiple line segments in a single draw call in WebGL. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to [email protected] At a base level WebGL is an engine that runs 2 user supplied functions on the GPU. This design facilitates multiple program state and management. In WebGL, it is forced to learn use shaders and buffers from the start. When compiling, emscripten will map our code to the WebGL API. It is important because WebGL is expected to be widely supported on all platforms from mobile to desktop. It initially failed the majority of official WebGL conformance tests, but Microsoft later released several updates. I know I want to draw gl. Buffer overflow in the BufferSubData function in Mozilla Firefox before 44. A frame buffer can be thought of as another window that we render to, but we don't end up seeing. 10/5/2015 7 Coding in WebGL •Can run WebGL on any recent browser. This is done by using createBuffer() to tell WebGL to that we want to set aside some memory at the graphics hardware for our data, bindBuffer() to select this buffer as something we want to manipulate, and then bufferData() to actually copy the triangle data to the currently selected buffer in the graphics hardware. Feel free to add more WebGL Resources. Updated data and calls to. On WebGL1 context all uniforms are sent to GPU independently. We first make // sure we're talking to the correct buffer, then we're going to // associate that buffer with the vertex attribute from the program. WebGL Browser Report checks WebGL support in your web browser, produce WebGL Device Fingerprinting, and shows the other WebGL and GPU capabilities more or less related web browser identity. There is one draw call, with four vertices: the four corners. View full source code or view the compiled example online. The latest 0. If you have a theory for the root cause or have identified and reduced a reproducible bug, include a description and any relevant code or URLs in your comment and mark it as a root cause suggestion. Attributes get their data from buffers so we need to create a buffer var positionBuffer = gl. createBuffer() ! This function returns an identifier for the buffer object ! Step 2: Bind the buffer with a particular buffer type with gl. Indeed it has inherited from the plurality of licensed CAD software. In these buffer objects, we will be able to store data of the model that we want to draw, corresponding to the vertices, indices, color, etc. By Nicolas Belmonte Originally published October 17, 2012. WebGL Browser Report checks WebGL support in your web browser, produce WebGL Device Fingerprinting, and shows the other WebGL and GPU capabilities more or less related web browser identity. It uses EXT_color_buffer_float draft extension. UNSIGNED_SHORT, element. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more. DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT and gl. ARRAY_BUFFER, gl. ELEMENTARY_BUFFER,. OpenGL is the definitive cross-platform 3D library. Currently, I have a position vertex buffer, a texture coordinate buffer, and a normals buffer. Each vertex is assigned a color attribute, and WebGL interpolates between these colors using a varying variable. WebGL Rendering to a Texture This post is a continuation of a series of posts about WebGL. Most WebGL apps use one buffer per type of data per mesh. Before running these tests you should turn off as many other programs as you can. Both WebGL vs OpenGL are popular choices in the market; let us discuss some of the major Difference Between WebGL vs OpenGL : Definition It is designed for rendering 2D and 3D graphics. These numbers can represent vertex positions, colors, or anything else that we need. First of all, you should have an editor like as notepad ++ or sublime text and a browser that does support web gl like Mozilla, Chrome , Opera etc, (but not Internet Explorer) !. But, by attaching a texture to a framebuffer we can render into that texture. He writes, "A bit over a year ago, we released a blog post with performance benchmarks for Unity WebGL, to compare WebGL performance in different browsers. The bots are expected to generally stay green, so it should be easy to spot failures. 0a1 (2012-12-28) OSX Expected results: Validation should succeed regardless of attribute buffer size, since the index buffer uses only the first 3 elements. We will also show how to override hitTest() so that the user will be able to interact with the features displayed by the custom view. Each vertex is associated with (x,y,z) coordinates, and optionally additional data such as color, surface normal or texture coordinates. Notice the r,g,b data is offset by 3 floats per line of vertex data. Because OpenGL doesn't allow writing to the same textures that you are reading from, I needed a duplicate set of framebuffers/textures to swap between every frame. Note that I didn’t get all the way through this tutorial since I got. This example shows how to use the precompose and postcompose rendering hooks to clip layers using WebGL. The index buffer contains integers, three for each triangle in the mesh, which reference the various attribute buffers (position, colour, UV coordinates, other UV coordinates, normal, …). The way to do this is to bind the buffer: making it the "current" buffer in WebGL. // Our buffer is an array of (x,y) points, so 2 floating point values // per vertex. Gopherjs binding to the webgl context. But we'll see. The first started with fundamentals and the previous was about supplying data to textures. TRANSFORM_FEEDBACK_BUFFER, gl. WebGL_color_buffer_float is the WebGL 1 extension. 0 and Firefox ESR 38. Join the conversation. August 9, 2013 by admin. x before 38. A First Quick Fix. Uniform buffer objets. In WebGL, it can fake 3D texture with help of using 2D texture. 0 already universal - as seen in the state of industry survey. 2 Floating-Point Colors. Compare results of other browsers. If we call this code, we still don't see anything. bufferData() method of the WebGL API initializes and creates the buffer object's data store. preprocessing is related with limitation of WebGL. 02:50 The first operation we'll do on that buffer is to put our vertex data into it with gl. Usually buffers contain things like positions, normals, texture coordinates, vertex colors. A First Quick Fix. WebGL is managed by the non-profit Khronos Group. createBuffer(); WebGL lets us manipulate many WebGL resources on global bind points. code libraries Check out Sing Li's 3D development with WebGL, Part 2 code. To achieve this result, you will have to deal with a lot of WebGL code. There's more to WebGL than Three. Here is the syntax of this method − Here is the syntax of this method − void vertexAttribPointer ( location , int size , enum type , bool normalized , long stride , long offset ). In addition to supporting querying with the pname BUFFER_USAGE as in WebGL 1. Once that data is uploaded, rendering is really fast. What Firebug and Developer Tools are to HTML/JS, WebGL Inspector is to WebGL. Simple example of rendering into float RG32F immutable textures in WebGL 2. If you are the developer of this content, try allocating less memory to your WebGL build in the WebGL player settings. It helps its user to perform 3D manipulation in the web browsers. The first of these makes it possible to use textures in which color component values are floating-point numbers, instead of eight-bit integers. - predefined by WebGL - specifies the position of a vertex. Solution(s) mozilla-thunderbird-upgrade-38_6. By default, OpenGL uses the framebuffer as a rendering destination that is created and managed entirely by the window system. js or the animated WebGL lines created with the THREE. The latest 0. Hi Michael, I appreciated this article. This post is not going to be a tutorial for WebGL, since there are many excellent resources for that already. If I dramatically increase the size of the buffers the speed of the leak does not increase, so clearly webGL is correctly deleting the buffers. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, hardware vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights present real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. 0 Compute"--use-angle=gl Run ANGLE with OpenGL backend because Shader Storage Buffer Object is now on implementing and there are some use cases which do not work well on D3D backend yet. Many of the new features require manually ensuring that handles and memory are correctly laid out so that the pipeline can use them efficiently, but this setup can fail in…. Canvas being a part of HTML5 allows its users with dynamic, script rendered 2D shapes. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more. In web technology terms, WebGl is the 3d drawing context of the HTML5 element. 0 is now being supported by most browsers but requires a better GPU so may not run on older computers or on most cell phones and tablets. Here is a demo that shows how to visualize the depth buffer in GLSL with GeeXLab. ARRAY_BUFFER tells WebGL the target buffer to use for this data. The bufferdata function in WebGL is vulnerable to a buffer overflow with specific graphics drivers on Linux. By default, OpenGL uses the framebuffer as a rendering destination that is created and managed entirely by the window system. This leads to a potentially exploitable crash. WebGL from Scratch: Textures, part I My previous posts on model loading might have gotten a little carried away. The depth buffer helps you know when something is behind or in front of something else. WebGL_color_buffer_float is the WebGL 1 extension. On the Viewer window I get the message: WebGL is not supported by your browser - visit https://get. But we'll see. Ken, my plan is to build a good number of simple demos which test specific features (and also performance). ARRAY_BUFFER, gl. docs examples. JSConf Budapest 36,053 views. Notice the r,g,b data is offset by 3 floats per line of vertex data. It uses EXT_color_buffer_float draft extension. I think it's a good time to actually do something physical on the screen. Extensions. In these buffer objects, we will be able to store data of the model that we want to draw, corresponding to the vertices, indices, color, etc. Properties:. I already have the geometries I wish to render on my WebGL client available as preprocessed vertex and index buffers (and color buffers, but let's ignore them for now). Hi Michael, I appreciated this article. // Our buffer is an array of (x,y) points, so 2 floating point values // per vertex. In this article we’ll look at what image post-processing is and how to use the WebGL API to apply real-time post-processing effects on images and other media like video, , etc. It's not aware that our webgl plane should act as a see-thru to make our css3d visible. Enable WebGL Compute shader, WebGL2ComputeRenderingContext Or you can enable this flag via about://flags/ if using the corresponding version, choose "WebGL 2. fbo_multisample. x before 38. WebVR extension. 2019 will hopefully see more WebGL extensions moving into implementation. Canvas being a part of HTML5 allows its users with dynamic, script rendered 2D shapes. This tutorial begins with a fundamental introduction to WebGL, OpenGL, and the Canvas element of HTML-5, along with a sample application. try to make sure the content area is about the same size in all browsers. It is designed to have an API that emulates the OpenGL ES 2. 9/28/2015 8 Coding in WebGL •Can run WebGL on any recent browser. You can try these free programs to scan for malware, which work with your existing antivirus software:. 0 API enforcing the restrictions of that API and working around incompatibilities in drivers and platforms. This context manages the OpenGL state and renders to the drawing buffer. This post is not going to be a tutorial for WebGL, since there are many excellent resources for that already. They got a message saying "The browser could not allocate enough memory for the WebGL Content", which I assume is what shows up as "Array Buffer allocation failed" in my dev tool. I know I want to draw gl. Here is the syntax of this method − Here is the syntax of this method − void vertexAttribPointer ( location , int size , enum type , bool normalized , long stride , long offset ). I have never dealt directly with webgl itself before and was having trouble figuring out how exactly to implement what you solution #2. In this lesson, we’ll look at how to create a basic WebGL instance and display stuff to the screen, as well as what you need in order to view WebGL in your browser. { // The following code snippet creates a vertex buffer and binds the Get longitude and latitude from the Globe in WebGL. We will also show how to override hitTest() so that the user will be able to interact with the features displayed by the custom view. 0 is now being supported by most browsers but requires a better GPU so may not run on older computers or on most cell phones and tablets. It helps its user to perform 3D manipulation in the web browsers. This is usually done at initialization time. By JCPalmer, April 26, 2015 in Questions & Answers. hasWebGL() that returns a boolean whether the current browser supports WebGL or not. If you want to get stuff done use three. The stencil buffer is an optional extension of the depth buffer that gives you more control over the question of which fragments should be drawn and which shouldn't. Introduction to shaders. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: